Nathaniel Hawthorne was an American novelist, dark romantic, and short story writer. He was born in 1804 in Salem, Massachusetts to Nathaniel Hathorne and the former Elizabeth Clarke Manning. He entered Bowdoin College in 1821 and graduated in 1825. He published his first work in 1828, the novel Fanshawe. He published several short stories in periodicals, which he collected in 1837 as Twice-Told Tales. He worked at the Boston Custom House and joined Brook Farm, a transcendentalist community. The Scarlet Letter was published in 1850, followed by a succession of other novels. A political appointment as consul took Hawthorne and family to Europe before their return to Concord in 1860. Hawthorne died on May 19, 1864, and was survived by his wife and their three children.